Previous Section: Block 7

Critical Interpretive Research: An Introduction

Conclusions & References


In this web piece I have concentrated on the way topics and assignments were organized in this methods course. But many other factors equally important to the success and outcomes of a course like this. A more complete account would also mention the many modifications and compromises made while teaching the course, describe students' projects and grades, and summarize student feedback. It would also discuss facilty reactions to the course.

Training in research methodology quickly cuts deeply to the core of university life, having an impact on students' choice of subsequent courses, of dissertation topic, of advisors and committee members. It has complex and subtle ideological and political ramifications within the academy. Efforts to change students' training, particularly those that would alter the received paradigm, call into question commitments central to academic identity; strong emotions are roused. Ideally, open debate should be the result, but Kuhn notes how:

Resistance to change has positive functions for the practice of normal science, but the result is that innovation is seen as "subversive to its basic commitments," as leading the profession astray.

My hope is that this paper will contribute to discussion of the research training appropriate for graduate students in schools of education and elsewhere. I welcome feedback from you, the reader, in the form of comments on, reactions to, or criticisms of the course as I have outlined it, the sharing of your own experiences, and any and all questions.

References

Austin, J. L. (1975). How to do things with words. (2 ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Awbrey, M. J. (1987). A teacher's action research study of writing in the kindergarten: Accepting the natural expression of children. Peabody Journal of Education, 64, 33-65.

Ball, S. J. (1990). Self-doubt and soft data: Social and technical trajectories in ethnographic fieldwork. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 3, 157-171.

Bennis, W. (1989). When winning is losing. In Why leaders can't lead (pp. 98-101). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bernstein, R. (1983). Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics, and praxis: Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bernstein, R. J. (1976). The restructuring of social and political theory: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. J. D. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bruner, J. (1996). Two modes of thought. In Actual minds, possible worlds (pp. 11-43). Harvard University Press.

Caputo, J. D. (1987). Science, rationality, and play. In Radical hermeneutics: Repetition, deconstruction, and the hermeneutic project(pp. 214-222). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986a). The natural scientific view of educational theory and practice. In Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and action research (pp. 51-81). London: Falmer Press.

Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986b). The interpretive view of educational theory and practice. In Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and action research(pp. 83-101). London: Falmer Press.

Carter, C. (1993). The place of story in the study of teaching and teacher education. Educational Researcher, 22, 5-12, 18.

Cazden, C. B. (1986). Classroom discourse. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching, (3 ed., pp. 432-463). New York: Macmillan.

Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1986). On narrative method, personal philosophy, and narrative unities in the story of teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 293-210.

Cziko, G. A. (1989). Unpredictability and indeterminism in human behavior: Arguments and implications for educational research. Educational Researcher, 18(3), 17-25.

Dallmayr, F. R., & McCarthy, T. A. (1977). Understanding and social inquiry: University of Notre Dame Press.

Donmeyer, R. (1996). Educational research in an era of paradigm proliferation: What's a journal editor to do? Educational Researcher, 25(2), 19-25.

Donmoyer, R. (1985). The rescue from relativism: Two failed attempts and an alternative strategy. Educational Researcher, 14(10), 13-20.

Eisner, E. W. (1988). The primacy of experience and the politics of method. Educational Researcher, 17(5), 15-20.

Eisner, E. W. (1993). Forms of understanding and the future of educational research. Educational Researcher, 22(7), 5-11.

Everhart, R. B. (1977). Between stranger and friend: Some consequences of 'long term' fieldword in schools. American Educational Research Journal, 14, 1-14.

Evertson, C. M., & Green, J. L. (1986). Observation as inquiry and method. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), handbook of research on teaching, (3 ed., pp. 162-213). New York: Macmillan.

Farrell, E., Peguero, G., Lindsey, R., & White, R. (1989). Giving voice to high school students: Pressure and boredom, ya know what I'm saying? American Educational Research Journal, 25, 489-502.

Firestone, W. A. (1987). Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research. Educational researcher, 16(7), 16-21.

Flinders, D. J. (1992). In search of ethical guidance: constructing a basis for dialogue. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 5(2), 101-115.

Geertz, C. (1976/1979). From the native's point of view: The nature of anthropological understanding. In P. Rabinow & W. M. Sullivan (Eds.), Interpretive social science: A reader, (pp. 225-241). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Giddens, A. (1977). Studies in social and political theory: New York: Basic Books.

Giddens, A. (1982). Hermeneutics and social theory. In Profiles and critiques in social theory, (pp. 1-17). University of California Press.

Goetz, J. P. & LeCompte, M. D. (1984). Inteactive methods, and noninteractive mnethods, Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research (pp. 109-119, 142-153). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Gorden, R. (1980). Interviewing strategy, techniques and tactics. New York: Dorsey.

Halliday, M. (1973). Explorations in the functions of language. London: Edward Arnold.

Hammersley, M. (1990). School learning: The cultural resources required by pupils to answer a teacher's question. Ch. 2 in Classroom ethnography: Empirical and methodological essays (pp. 27-53). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Heidegger, M. (1927/1962). Being and time. (J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row.

Heshusius, L. (1994). Freeing ourselves from objectivity: Managing subjectivity or turning toward a participatory mode of consciousness? Educational Researcher, 23(3), 15-22.

Howe, K., & Eisenhart, M. (1990). Standards for qualitative (and quantitative) research: A prolegomenon. Educational Researcher, 19(4), 2-9.

Howe, K. R. (1988). Against the quantitative-qualitative incompatability thesis: Or dogmas die hard. Educational Researcher, 17, 10-16.

Howe, K. R. (1995). Two dogmas of educational research. Educational Researcher, 14(8), 10-18.

Huberman, M. (1987). How well does educational research really travel? Educational Researcher, 16(1), 5-13.

Jacob, E. (1987). Qualitative research traditions: a review. Review of Educational Research, 57, 1-50.

Jacob, E. (1988). Clarifying qualitative research: A focus on traditions. Educational Researcher, 17(1), 16-24.

Kaestle, C. F. (1993). The awful reputation of education research. Educational Researcher, 22, 23-31.

Kincheloe, J. L. (1991a). Connecting knower and known: Constructing an emancipating system of meaning. In Teachers as researchers: Qualitative inquiry as a path to empowerment (pp. 26-47). London: Falmer Press. Ch. 2:

Kincheloe, J. L. (1991b). Purposes of research: The concept of instrumental rationality. In Teachers as researchers: Qualitative inquiry as a path to empowerment (pp. 85-110). London: Falmer Press.

Kinneavy, J. L. (1971). A theory of discourse: The aims of discourse. New York: Norton.

Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. (2nd ed.): Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kuhn, T. S. (1977a). Objectivity, value judgment, and theory choice. Ch. 13 in The essential tension, (pp. 320-339). University of Chicago Press).

Kuhn, T. S. (1977b). Second thoughts on paradigms. In The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change, (pp. 293-319). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kvale, S. (1986). Interpretation of the qualitative research interview. Transformations, 2, 32-42.

Lather, P. (1986). Research as praxis. Harvard Educational Review, 56, 257-277.

Latour, B. & Woolgar, S. (1979/1986). An anthropologist visits the laboratory. In Laboratory life: The construction of scientific facts (pp. 43-103). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lieberman, A. (1992). The meaning of scholarly activity and the building of community. Educational Researcher, 21, 5-12.

MacIntyre, A. (1984). The character of generalizations in social science and their lack of predictive power. In After virtue: A study in moral theory 2nd ed. (pp. 97-99). Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Masterman, M. (1970). The nature of a paradigm. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge, (pp. 59-89). Cambridge University Press.

Mathison, S. (1988). Why triangulate? Educational Researcher, 17(2), 13-17.

McCarthy, T. (1978). The critical theory of Jurgen Habermas. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McCracken , G. (1988). The long interview. Qualitative Research Methods Series No. 13. Newbury Park: Sage.

Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Mehan, H. (1979a). Looking inside schools. Ch. 1 In Learning lessons (pp. 1-34). Boston: Harvard University Press.

Mishler, E. G. (1986). Research interviewing: Context and narrative: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mishler, E. G. (1990). Validation in inquiry-guided research: The role of exemplars in narrative studies. Harvard Educational Review, 60, 415-442.

Mosenthal, P. B. (1985). Defining progress in educational research. Educational Researcher, 14(9), 3-9.

Nespor, J. (1990). The jackhammer: A case study of undergraduate physics problem solving in its social setting. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 3, 139-155.

Nofsinger, R. E. (1991a). Action sequences. Ch. 3 In Everyday conversation (pp.49-77). Newbury Park: Sage.

Nofsinger, R. E. (1991b). Turn organization. Ch. 4 In Everyday conversation (pp. 78-110). Newbury Park: Sage.

Oberg, A., & McCutcheon, G. (1987). Teacher's experience doing action research. Peabody Journal of Education, 64, 116-126.

Ochs, E. (1979). Transcription as theory. In E. Ochs & B. B. Schieffelin (Eds.), Developmental pragmatics, (pp. 43-72). New York: Academic Press.

Oja, S. N., & Pine, G. J. (1987). Collaborative action research: Teachers' stages of development and school context. Peabody Journal of Education, 64, 96-115.

Oldfather, P., & West, J. (1994). Qualitative research as jazz. Educational Researcher, 23(8), 22-26.

Packer, M. J. (1985). Hermeneutic inquiry in the study of human conduct. American Psychologist, 40, 1081-1093.

Packer, M. J., & Addison, R. B. (1989). Evaluating an interpretation account. In M. Packer & R. B. Addison (Eds.), Entering the circle: Hermeneutic investigation in psychology, (pp. 275-292). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Peshkin, A. (1988). In search of subjectivity--one's own. Educational researcher, 17, 17-22.

Phillips, D. C. (1983). After the wake: Postpositivist educational thought, Educational Researcher, 4-12).

Popkewitz, T. S. (1984). Paradigms in educational science: Different meanings and purpose of theory. Ch. 2 In Paradigm and ideology in educational research: The social functions of the intellectual (pp. 31-58). London: Falmer Press.

Prince, G. (1987). A dictionary of narratology: Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Rabinow, P., & Sullivan, W. M. (Eds.). (1979). Interpretation social science: a reader. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Richardson, V. (1994). Conducting research on practice. Educational Researcher, 23(5), 5-10.

Richardson-Koehler, V. (1987). Special section: Qualitative methodology. American Educational Research Journal, 24, 171.

Ricoeur, P. (1971/1979). The model of the text: Meaningful action considered as a text. Reprinted in P. Rabinow & W. M. Sullivan (Eds.), Interpretive social science: A reader, . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Searle, J. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, J. K., & Heshusius, L. (1986). Closing down the conversation: The end of the quantitative-qualitative debate among educational inquirers. Educational Researcher, 15, 4-12.

Smith, M. L. (1987). Publishing qualitative research. American Educational Research Journal, 24(2), 173-183.

Taylor, C. (1971/1979). Interpretation and the sciences of man. Reprinted in P. Rabinow & W. Sullivan (Eds.), Interpretation social science: A reader, (pp. 25-72). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thompson, J. B. (1990). The methodology of interpretation, Ch. 6 in Ideology and modern culture: Critical social theory in the era of mass communication., (pp. 272-327, 347-351). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Toulmin, S., Rieke, R., Janik, A. (1974). Introduction. Ch 2. in An introduction to reasoning (pp. 23-28). New York: Macmillan.

Urban, W. (1990). Statement of purpose, & The social and institutional analysis section: Context and content [Editorial]. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 1-8.

Wagner, J. (1993). Ignorance in educational research: Or, how can you not know that? Educational Researcher, 22(5), 15-23.

Willis, P. (1977). Elements of a culture. Ch. 2 in Learning to labor: How working class kids get working class jobs (pp. 11-51). New York: Columbia University Press.

Wilson, S. (1977). The use of ethnographic techniques in educational research. Review of Educational research, 47, 245-265.

Winch, P. (1958). The idea of a social science and its relation to philosophy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Wittgenstein, L. (1953). § 66 - 71 In Philosophical Investigations. New York: Macmillan.

Wood, D. (1992). The power of maps. New York: Guilford.
 

Return to Start of Document

© Martin Packer, 1999

Home Page

Developmental Psychology

Cultural Psychology