Infancy (0 — 2.5 years)

Sigmund Freud

(1856-1939)

Psychoanalyst

Biological- maturation framework

Oral Stage

Anal Stage

- infantile sexuality; pleasure in organs of the body

Erik Erikson

(1902-1994)

 

Trust versus Mistrust challenge

- of parental care

Autonomy versus Shame

- in walking etc.

John Watson

(1878-1958)

Behaviorist.

Environmental-learning framework

"Treat them as though they were young adults... Never hug and kiss them, never let them sit on your lap."

Jean Piaget

(1896-1980)

Genetic epistemologist

Constructivist framework

Sensorimotor Intelligence

-grounded in the body

Lev Vygotsky

(1896-1934)

Cultural psychologist

Cultural context framework

Affiliation with parents

- development is socially mediated

Kieran Egan

 

Somatic understanding

- cognitive tools’