Infancy (0 — 2.5 years)

Sigmund Freud



Biological- maturation framework

Oral Stage

Anal Stage

- infantile sexuality; pleasure in organs of the body

Erik Erikson



Trust versus Mistrust challenge

- of parental care

Autonomy versus Shame

- in walking etc.

John Watson



Environmental-learning framework

"Treat them as though they were young adults... Never hug and kiss them, never let them sit on your lap."

Jean Piaget


Genetic epistemologist

Constructivist framework

Sensorimotor Intelligence

-grounded in the body

Lev Vygotsky


Cultural psychologist

Cultural context framework

Affiliation with parents

- development is socially mediated

Kieran Egan


Somatic understanding

- cognitive tools’