Main Points: Middle childhood: social development

Time with peers increases

Peer values may diverge from family values

Rule-based games replace role-based (fantasy) games.

Games illustrate the growing understanding of others' perspectives and a morality of instrumental exchange.

Balancing personal desires to create a socially agreed-upon system

Los Abandenados: a gang; an 'autonomous' society (friendship, concern, solidarity).

Children of different ethnicity, gender and class can have different childhoods.

The interaction between peer relations and relations with adult authorities shapes social responsibility, and prepares children to be adult members of a particular society.