sounds

phonology

phonetics

-What are the basic units of sound?

categorical perception: pa & ba, v Japan

"phonemes." /p/ /b/ /r/ /l/ ~40

distinctive features: voicing, plosion, place

-how to recognize these?

-produce them?

-combine them? *

words

vocabulary

lexicon

semantics (study of meaning)

-What are the basic units of meaning?

smaller than the word: "morphemes"

"cat/s" "cat" "-s" prefices, suffices (plural, tense, inflections)

100,000 in Eng -> 500,000 words

-Where are word boundaries? "Why are you weary?"

-How do words refer to things? "gabagi!" *

-How do words relate? semantic categories

sentences

grammar

syntax

-How to speak correctly?

Sequences of words, in Grammatical categories: noun, verb, adjective

Chomsky: Syntactic Structures (1957)

Rules to produce grammatical sentences

Infinite in number, unlimited length.

"creativity," "generativity" (GG)

Deep structure v surface structure: "John is easy/eager to please."

Active, passive, interrogative

-How to string words together?

utterances

use in context

pragmatics

-How to do things with words?

"Does anyone know the time?"

-What are the basic units of communication?

"Speech acts": order, promise, apologize, request (1000 in English) - performatives

-How to be polite?

Indirect speech acts: "Is your daddy there?"

E.g. politeness "I got to go, bye"

Cooperative principles